Jagadguru Sankaracarya Sri Bharati Krishna Tirthaji Maharaja was the the Sankaracarya of Govardhana Matha Puri, who reconstructed the ancient system of Vedic Ganitha from Sanskrit texts.
Vedic Ganitha ( वेदिक गनिथ ) is a system of mathematics consisting of a list of 16 basic Sutras and 13 sub Sutras. They were presented by a Hindu scholar and mathematician, Bharati Krishna Tirthaji Maharaja, during the early part of the 20th century. But for him this system would have been hidden from us for more years or for ever.
After continuous Sadhana and hardwork, he was able to decode the wide ranging mathematical principles and applications from old Sanskrit manuscripts. He found that these Sturas cover all aspects of mathematical science in depth. He wrote sixteen volumes on Vedic mathematics covering all aspects of these sutras in depth. Unfortunately, the manuscript was lost which fact was finally confirmed in 1956. During his last days when his health was failing and his eyesight was weak, he rewrote from his memory an introductory account of the subject. He attained Mahasmadhi in 1960. Later in 1965 a book entitled “Vedic Mathematics” was published. This book is edited by Dr. V.S.Agarwala with the help of Smt. Manula Trivedi on the basis of manuscript and notes left by Swamijee. This book is therefore, the first book to give a glimpse of Vedic Mathematics and to reestablished the subject. application in our day today calculations.
The calculation strategies provided by Vedic mathematics are screative and useful, and can be applied in a number of ways to calculation methods in arithmetic and algebra, most notably within the education system. Following are the sutras of Vedic Ganitha.
1.Ekadhikina Purvena एकःधिकोन पूर्वेण
Meaning: By one more than the previous one.
2Nikhilam Navatashcaramam Dashatah निकिलं नवतशचरमं दषतः
(Corollary: Sisyate Sesasamjnah)
Meaning: All from 9 and the last from 10.
Meaning: Vertically and crosswise
4. Paraavartya Yojayet परावर्त्य योजयेत
(Corollary: Kevalaih Saptakam Gunyat)
Meaning: Transpose and adjust
5.Shunyam Saamyasamuccaye शून्यं साम्यसमुच्छये
Meaning: When the sum is the same that sum is zero
6.(Anurupye) Shunyamanyat अनुरुप्ये शुन्यमन्यत
(Corollary: Yavadunam Tavadunam)
Meaning: If one is in ratio, the other is zero
7.Sankalana-vyavakalanabhyam संकलान व्यवकलनाभ्यां
(Corollary: Yavadunam Tavadunikritya Varga Yojayet)
Meaning: By addition and by subtraction
Meaning: By the completion or non-completion
9.Chalana-Kalanabyham चलन कलनब्य्हं
Meaning: Differences and Similarities
10. Yaavadunam यावदुनं
Meaning: Whatever the extent of its deficiency
11. Vyashtisamanstih वयश्तिसमन्स्तिः
Meaning: Part and Whole
12. Shesanyankena Charamena शेषान्यन्केन चरमेण
Meaning: The remainders by the last digit
13. Sopaantyadvayamantyam सोपान्त्यद्वयमन्त्यं
(Corollary: Gunitasamuccayah Samuccayagunitah)
Meaning: The ultimate and twice the penultimate
14. Ekanyunena Purvena एकान्युनेन पूर्वेण
Meaning: By one less than the previous one
15. Gunitasamuchyah गुनितसमुच्यः
(Corollary: Dwandwa Yoga)
Meaning: The product of the sum is equal to the sum of the product
16. Gunakasamuchyah गुनकसमुचयः
(Corollary: Adyam Antyam Madhyam)
Meaning: The factors of the sum is equal to the sum of the factors.
In the coming pages we shall discuss the practical aspects of these sutras.